One way to look at complexity is a model Michael Quinn Patton uses in his book, “Developmental Evaluation: Applying Complexity Concepts to Enhance Innovation and Use.”  The model uses two dynamics, certainty and agreement, to create a matrix. The more agreement and certainty, the more likely you are to have a simple problem where planning and controlling strategies work just fine.  As you encounter more uncertainty, you are engaging with a technically complicated problem where experimenting and consulting experts are more likely to work. As you encounter more disagreement, building relationships and seeking common ground are effective strategies.  When you are in complexity you encounter disagreement and uncertainty and need to engage with all of these strategies.